Numbers for the year, training recap, and goals for 2013

My training “year” follows a December to December pattern due to a transition from trail running to skiing right around late November- early December. It is a good time to tally the numbers, do some critical review, and put together a training plan for the coming year.

The Numbers

I targeted about 700 hours for the year and came surprisingly close to that number without any “manipulation”. This is strictly fortuitous, but because this training year has been nothing but pleasurable, it has given me some confidence that I can now, after a couple of years of serious and consistent training, start to push the numbers without any great concern for breakdown. It is at times like this when ones full potential is within reach. I am grateful that I have the opportunity to pursue it.

As far as vertical ascention, I really had no sense of what a typical year of training would total up to. The 500,000+ feet this past year was a surprise and averages out to about 1,450 feet of ascention per day. I know I can handle more vertical so I am considering a target  for the coming year, maybe 700,000 feet (about an average of 1,900 feet per day).


As I review the past year of training it is a bit of a struggle to derive some meaningful metrics, associated clarity, and, ultimately, direction from the numbers. Evaluation of time, intensity, distance, and vertical ascention are all important inputs to arrive at functional metrics that can provide guidance with training plans going forward. In previous posts I have used a derivative metric called “intensity minutes”, aka training impulse (“TRIMP”). Although this metric nicely incorporates both training time and intensity (i.e. a measure of the “quality” of the training session), the metric differs significantly in magnitude for different sports. Specific to my training in the sports of trail running and Nordic skiing, the magnitude of the “intensity minutes” is quite different for the same training load. It seems apparent that this is the case due to the amount of time one can run versus ski. I find that, on average, a 2 hour ski is about equivalent to a 1.5 hr run which equates to an approximately 30% difference in TRIMP. This is likely due to the significant incorporation of the upper body in skiing. Given this empirical and functional difference in the two sports w/r/t TRIMP, the training seasons must be evaluated separately and with different metric magnitudes. Periodization, of course, will not be substantially different.

The goal here is to glean from this analysis the following:

  • magnitudes – what are the magnitudes of TRIMP, time, distance, and vertical ascention that make sense for me?
  • capabilities – what are the magnitudes of training variables that I can consistently “support”  through a season?
  • combinations – what combinations of sessions are effective and supportable?

and, most importantly,

  • direction – for detailed training plan design


Analysis of the training data suggests that I am capable of consistently supporting a 7 day total of about 2700 intensity minutes of TRIMP in skiing and about 2200 intensity minutes of TRIMP in trail running. These data are important because it sets the combination of time, intensity, and distance that can be reliably included in a week of training. In addition, variations in the amount of TRIMP for periodization can be derived from the available data as well. In this case the dynamic range in training  TRIMP for skiing is about +/-500 intensity minute units and for trail running this range is about +/-1000 intensity minute units. What this means is that a “hard” running week will target a value of about 3000 TRIMP and the same “hard” week for skiing would be targeted at about 3200 TRIMP. Likewise an “easy” week for running would be about 1000 TRIMP and for skiing it would be about 2200 TRIMP. The challenge is to take this information and develop a training plan around key races.

For running it feels like somewhere around 80 miles per week is a supportable quantity. I may try to push this up next season but I have heard from others in my age range (and with a lot of experience and great results in ultra running racing) that they have difficulty dong much more than 80 miles per week without developing “issues”. I have intentions of bringing my minimum run distance up to 20 km (12 miles) as this will ensure a minimum of about 85 miles per week that I could build off to see what happens to my body when I start to reach into the 100 mile+ per week regime. However, distance will always be second fiddle to quality- even I have seen way too many good runners focus on distance and see their performance decline.

As far as skiing, given the significant lack of impact damage, I can easily handle 200 km+ (120 miles) per week without any negative side effects. Once again though, quality is king and this is even more important in Nordic skiing where the races are much shorter than ultras (the longest Nordic skiing race will be about a maximum of 2.5 hours). So some super high intensity intervals and hill repeats are very important to maximize performance for the shorter races (10 km-30 km). I have no focus on distance in skiing, just time, particularly early in the season. The other element that plays in here is that the snow conditions can radically alter the pace and it is distinctly possible to cover twice the distance on a fast snow day than on a slow snow day, so there really is no basis for using distance as a primary metric for Nordic ski training. Distance has much more influence in trail running.

I am still experimenting with training week “combinations” (e.g. a hard running week of vertical with distance (3000 TRIMP) combined with a recovery running week dominated by distance (1000 TRIMP)) that work together to maximize absorption of the training load for optimal cardiovascular, muscular, and skeletal development.

I have entertained thoughts that I can “support” a higher TRIMP (and therefore higher intensity/time/distance/vertical) on average than I have this past year and therefore my forward-going training plan will push the TRIMP values and we will see how that works out. I know from past training “careers” that my ability to absorb volume is greater than what I am presently doing, but then again, I am 30 years older than when I last trained at this volume. Time will tell.

Given these training load parameters and successful combination weeks, much of the necessary input for development of a detailed first order training plan is established. The synthesis of a plan can be completed by your coach (if you have one) or directly by you. I prefer to interact with a coach in a consultive manner where I come up with a draft plan and my coach edits this plan and we come to consensus. The consulting coach can then be tapped periodically for adjustments or revamps as needed. I like this arrangement because, for whatever reason, I seem to be more invested in the plan and therefore  more committed to the details on a day-to-day basis. But that is me.


I will now present the detailed training data that supports the “take-aways” summarized above. There is a lot of data here- two sports, 4 input variables, and a derived metric (TRIMP) for an  entire 700 hour year of training. You may not have the interest to go through it but it might be worthwhile to do a pass through if for no other reason than to see how another athlete is evaluating their training. I am putting this information up for a couple of reasons- first to document the training year for planning and future reference and second to elicit any comments from interested readers. Although I have direct contact with a coach (consulting) and incidental contact with numerous other coaches on a regular basis, I still find that interaction with and input from a wide variety of athletes is very valuable. Your comments are welcome and greatly appreciated.

Detailed data graphics

The following eight graphics present all of the training data in a format that includes graphical representation of 7 day rolling total (blue), 7 day rolling average (green), and daily (red) data over the training period for the ski season (18 Nov 2011-8 Apr 2012) and, separately, the running season (9 Apr 2012-19 Nov 2012). The data presented are TRIMP, distance, time, and vertical ascention.

Ski Season

This past ski season represented a return to racing for me. I had not ski raced in about 20 years. My past racing focused on skating but I have come to a greater appreciation of the classic technique and this is now my focus. Although I skate regularly, classic is the passion and is also the preferable race style for me. I prepared for and competed in two races with reasonable results and I am looking forward to “really” racing this year.

Slide09Slide11Slide15Slide13Focusing on the TRIMP graph, the periodization is quite evident where a slow 3 week buildup to consistent high quality was instituted in the early season. This was followed by a one week recovery period and then a ramp up to high quality for about two weeks prior to the first race. This high quality period included significant interval sessions and numerous hill repeat sessions at race pace as well as long (20 km+) tempo skis. A five day taper prior to the race was used and my performance exceeded expectation. It had been about 25 years since I raced in a Nordic event and I was “relearning” much about pacing and strategy.

The buildup to the second race was similar, starting out with a recovery week, then a week focused on technique drills and easy distance, followed by a very high intensity week (3500 TRIMP) that worked on both LT and VO2 max. A recovery week was then followed by a second high intensity week similar to the first one. I could definitely feel this training load and increased my sleeping time accordingly. An easy week following this and then a slightly lower intensity week to allow for full absorption of the period. A taper and then the race. The race went very well, stayed in control of the lead pack of 10 skiers throughout but let one guy get away in the last 10 km. Chalk that up to experience. The remainder of the lead pack jostled around and I finally conjured up the confidence to make a push in the last 3 km. Only 4 others were able to stay with me but I did a bit too much work and payed for it in the last 250 meters. But finishing 6th overall with a bunch of 20 and 30 somethings sounded like progress to me.

Running Season

This was my first season of training for trail ultramarathons and included my first two ultramarathon races (53 km and 70 km). It was also the first season of running focus in over 25 years. After 20 years of mountain biking at the professional and expert level, I have “ditched” the bike and turned to trail running only, at least for now. In the early part of the season I transitioned to “low drop” shoes and had the requisite bout of Achilles tendonitis in late April/early May after doing a bit too much vertical. This cleared up after a couple of weeks with reduced volume and reduced vertical.

Much of this training was by “feel” as I had  no reliable calibration as to what sort of volume/intensity/vertical would be consistently supportable. What I found was that a volume base of about, on average, 1.5 to 2 hours of trail running per day worked well. At a reasonable pace of about 10 min/mile this works out to 60-80 miles per week. I set a minimum trail run distance at 15 km (9 miles) and iterated off that to include intensity and vertical with some longer runs mixed in. One goal for next season is to include many more long runs (32+ km/20+ miles) and increasing the minimum trail run distance to about 20 km/12 miles. Also, I think that I can handle significantly more vertical as this is a strength but I need to balance this with work on an identified weakness- pacing on the flats. So speed work will be worked in next year.


The training structure is fairly obvious, but here is a narrative:

  • from mid-April to mid-May- developing base aerobic training with a couple of progressions and a bout of Achilles tendonitis
  • a build up to about 17 June for a 53km race with about 7,000 feet of vertical on 23 June
  • a week of taper and then the race
  • a recovery period (about 3 days)
  • another build up to about 7 July for a 70 km race with about 11,000 feet of vertical on 14 July
  • a week of taper and then the race
  • a recovery period (about 2 days) and about 2 weeks of lower volume
  • a third build up to about 11 August for a 84 km race with about 10,000 feet of vertical on 1 September which was truncated because I decided not to do the race due to fires and associated smoke
  • a volume block from about 20 August until about 5 October
  • a recovery period of about 7 days
  • transition to ski-specific training (some running but more roller skiing)

As far as the effectiveness of this training periodization, I placed in the top ten overall (5th and 9th) in each race. A better evaluation is that in each race a nationally ranked runner participated (and won) so I can calibrate my performance on a more national level. I was within 20% of the winning time in both races, which, given that these are my first two ultramarathon races, that I have only been training for ultramarathons since April 2012, and that I am old (56) it would seem that the current training protocol is at least passable. I have a lot of skill development and lateral muscle building to do, but this is a good start. My only significant thought is that I will add more long (20+ miles) runs into the program. Time will tell if it will have any positive effect; I expect that more longer runs will help with having a strong finish. I also need to concentrate on pacing on flats and also climbing as I was in the early part of the season.

Other relevant data

One of the most important parts of designing a reliable training plan is to establish a good balance of training time spent in the 5 heart rate zones. In a prior endurance sport “career”, our coaches emphasized the importance of avoiding too much level 3 training as such training is considered, by and large, “empty” training from a competitive fitness perspective. One will feel really good during such level 3 efforts but it is not doing much (if anything) with either LT pacing or VO2 max development. Focusing on high quality level 4-5 sessions with adequate rest at level 1-2 and including technique work (typically done at level 1-2) is preferable to including too many level 3 efforts. I have always had problems abiding by this protocol and such has proven to be the case once again and represents an important goal for next season.

Presented below are the percent “time in zone” and the “TRIMP per session” distributions for the ski and running seasons.Slide1 Slide2As is clearly evident, I have allowed for level 3 efforts to dominate my training. Whilst this may be acceptable in this first year of training for racing, going forward I need to drop the level 3 and replace it with a suitable combination of level 2 and level 4 efforts. The input I have received indicates that I should target a value of about 25% of the total for level three, with a similar amount of level 2 (with a total of about 35% for level 1&2), about 35% for level 4, and the remainder 5-10% at level 5 depending on how much racing will be done. You can see that I did a better job in approaching these numbers in running than in skiing, so with the just starting skiing season I will be pumping up the level 4 sessions  and adding a few more level two sessions. In running, I think that if I increase the vertical ascention, the level 4 efforts will naturally begin to dominate as I am almost always in level 4 on the climbs on the trails in the Sun valley area.Slide3 Slide4A similar result obtains for the TRIMP distributions as was evident for the “time in zone” distributions. The one caveat is that in running, the ultra races and long tempo runs increase the very high TRIMP per session values almost to the point of consideration of throwing them out f the analysis. I have included them here because the remainder of the distribution is still fairly accurate. This highlights one of the issues with using TRIMP as a metric for ultra distance training. The long times associated with the ultra races and the longer training efforts seems to over value these particular efforts. However, it will still be functional to attempt to put a training program together that more closely approaches a bimodal distribution dominated by TRIMP per session values at about 200 and 350.

Looking  forward and inputs for 2013 training plans

This analysis has lead me to propose the following goals for the 2013 seasons:


  • increase level 4 efforts and replace level 3 efforts with true level 2 efforts
  • focus on LT pacing and tempo skis (linked to increased level 4 efforts)
  • increase long (3-4 hour) skis to keep endurance and fat burning capabilities up for the ultra running season
  • focus on racing the races and controlling the dynamics of the pack


  • increase level 4 efforts and replace level 3 efforts with true level 2 efforts
  • try increasing minimum run length to 20 km/12 miles to determine if higher distance volume has a positive effect on strong race finishes
  • include speed work to help with pacing on flats
  • increase total vertical ascention (linked with increasing level 4 efforts)
  • race more to gain experience- target 4 races including at least one 100 km race

These goals have been central input to training plan development and I have a draft plan put together for both the skiing and running seasons. Hopefully an optimal training plan will result that will require very little modification and/or revamping.


10 thoughts on “Numbers for the year, training recap, and goals for 2013

  1. Hello again!

    What a treasure trove of a post!

    First, congratulations! At 56, you collected amazing 2012 numbers. I say this with a mix of admiration and fear. Admiration because, well, your level of performance is quite admirable. Fear because I am afraid you might risk overdoing it in your pursuit of the numbers.

    Case in point, yours truly. 2 years ago, I returned to running. I was in a truly unfit condition and the whole process was equivalent to re-birthing myself. Thereafter, I trained with a spartan discipline and I made tremendous progress. Honestly, I am nowhere near your level of volume, but we are all different and we must all follow our own path. (And I got a lot of other things in my life that need attention.)
    This being said, last Saturday, I decided to take a complete week off from running. Indeed, over the past few weeks, I noticed the developing symptoms of Posterior Tibialis Tendonitis. It reacts very well to rest, but my 48-hour breaks couldn’t shake it off, hence I decided to take a week off and I might have to take more time if my test run on Sunday brings back any kind of pain.
    My fault was probably to return to training too soon after a marathon-distance time trial and speed work that was unreasonable for my current level of fitness.

    So, my first piece of advice: Be careful when you start adding more speed work! (Speed work really compounds the pounding your legs must endure.)
    (I am sure you already have the discipline to add suitable rest periods after your major efforts, so I don’t think I need to mention this.)

    Secondly, I think you might want to consider centering your training around your current LT (Lactate Threshold). You would train at 3 levels: 30-40 seconds faster than vLT (your current LT pace); at vLT; and 30-40 seconds slower than vLT.
    Doing so will systematically bring your HR zone distribution to the U shape you seek.

    Also, considering that ultramarathons are your goal, I guess increasing your minimum running distance will be worthwhile, but doing 2 runs a day every other day (instead of a long run every day) could also be favorable.

    Finally, I am developing a bunch of Web-based software to keep track of training and training metrics. If you would be interested, I am sure you could provide me with some great feedback. It’s quite a ways off in terms of readiness, but I could alert you once it gets to a useful state. Just let me know how I can reach you. (maybe contact me via the email address I am about to enter below)

    Thanks for sharing your experience! That post was fantastic.

    Merry Christmas! Watch out for rogue snowmen.

    • Hi Laurent,

      Thanks for the compliments and thoughtful comments.

      I attempt to be quite careful about intensity and overdoing it and I am similarly careful about speed-enhancing sessions. I do not do track workouts- I told my track coach in college at my last race for the team that this was the last time I would be circling a paved oval for the remainder of my life. He understood. That said, there are many other appropriate places for “speed work”. However, I have found speed development can come naturally with just a bit of focus within either tempo (LT) or steady-state runs, provided the terrain allows. So the speed work I plan on partaking in will be something like 10X1min, 5X2min, 3X4min, and 2X7min “speeds” on relatively flat terrain within a standard distance run. I have a couple of places where this will work out well but I will work into these sessions slowly.

      Thanks for your thoughts about training plan design around LT. This approach might hep with my tendency toward L3 “empty” workouts and I will try to incorporate this into the training plan and see how it works. Attaining some predetermined distribution of session levels is all about focus and execution upon a plan. This is what I currently lack and hope to put in place.

      We will see how my body responds to more distance/time- I go into this with a healthy amount of reservation given what many ultra runners my age have said about the “80 mile” number. The two runs per day option can work, but I find the longer single runs to be much more aligned with the demands of an ultramarathon- I have always been a proponent of “practice what you do, punctuate with what you don’t” and the “10,000 hour rule”. I am only a couple thousand hours into this endeavor so I still have a ways to go.

      I would be pleased to try out any software you develop. I will send an email.

      Thanks again for the comments and Happy New Year!!

  2. Pingback: Training Effect – analysis and use of the Garmin 610 watch- update | it's all about the vertical

  3. Greetings,

    I have found these articles on training and TRIMP to be fascinating. And it has been the first time I’ve really understood TE on my Garmin. I was wondering what software you use to track your training and create your graphs. Did you create you’re own spreadsheet and if so would you be willing to share the template? I would love to look at my data like you have for the past two years. I’m a Mac user solely and so this limits what applications are available to me.

    Cheers, and I would love to visit your part of the country at somepoint.


    • John,

      Forgot to mention this but if you are an ultrarunner (or perhaps even if you are not) a new ultra race is being put on in our area and the trail they are using is very spectacular. The date for the race is late September- probably one the best times of the year for running in this area. The start is about 20 miles from the center of Sun Valley, so you can either camp at the start or stay in Sun Valley. Here is the race website in case you are interested:

    • John,

      Looks like my first comment disappeared.

      Glad to hear that my drivel is of use to someone!

      I use excel and create my own spreadsheets. I also use a Mac, all you need is MS excel for the Mac. I can clean up my file and make a template- Not a particularly ‘orderly’ user of excel- know how to get it to do what I want but it is not pretty.

      Let me know if you would like the template and I will clean it up and send it out.

      Best of luck in training.

      • If it’s not too much trouble to clean up, I would love the template. Just email it when you get the chance.

        Thanks for the link to the ultra. I am training for my first ultra right now which I will run in July. I am keeping my eye on the Standhope. The scenery looks incredible. Will you be running it?


      • Hi John,

        I have a few things in the que but I will get to it soon.

        I plan to do Standhope… as long as my body holds up.

        Good luck in your first ultra, mine was great experience.

  4. “The input I have received indicates that I should target a value of about 25% of the total for level three, with a similar amount of level 2 (with a total of about 35% for level 1&2), about 35% for level 4, and the remainder 5-10% at level 5 depending on how much racing will be done.”

    I am very curious about this, and what to count in the L1/L2. Does my yoga count? I am adjust from a similar EPOC profile (even L2/L3, low L4), but adding more L4 is… tiring!

    Where did you get that breakdown? (This is literally the single most useful comment on PTE I have found on the internet!)

    • Hi Gregg,

      The breakdown comes from experience and consulting with other experienced coaches and successful athletes. Since this post was written I have further reduced the Zone 3 time and increased the Zone 1/2 and zone 4/5 times. This is called “polarized training” and is well reviewed in the book “80/20” by Matt Fitzgerald. There are also numerous published papers on the subject the most recent one being the paper about the entire detailed training for the entire career of Marit Bjorgen. Marit is a highly successful cross country skier. Minimizing time in Zone 3 is the goals as this intensity will do little to increase either your aerobic fitness or your top end fitness (VO2max/pace at LT). I try to approach a 80-90% at Z1/Z2 and 20-10% at Z4/Z5 with as little Z3 as possible. As far as including yoga in Z1/Z2 I think is probably not accurate. As I understand it this work would be done in very low Z1 or below and therefore there is not sufficient training load accumulated. I could be underestimating the stress during yoga as I do not engage with that, but based on interactions with those that do yoga and a few who are instructors I think the aerobic training stress is minimal. Hope this helps.

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